Risk Factors for Obesity
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop
with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of becoming obese. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Risk factors for obesity include:
The following dietary habits can increase your risk of obesity:
- A diet of high-calorie, low-nutrient foods
- Consuming more calories than you burn each day
- Eating quickly, or when you feel full
- Drinking high-calorie drinks, including sugar-sweetened soda or alcohol
Children may also be at risk for becoming obese if they do not eat their regular meals with their family.
Lack of Sleep
Not getting enough sleep may put children at risk for obesity. How much sleep in enough for kids? Here are general recommendations:
- Aged 5 years or younger—11 hours or more
- 5-10 years—10 hours or more
- 10 years or older—9 hours or more
Lack of Physical Activity
If you don’t get enough physical activity you are likely to burn fewer calories than you eat each day, thus increasing your risk of becoming obese. For children, too little exercise and spending too much time watching TV or playing on the computer can increase their risk of gaining weight and becoming obese.
Working Varied Shifts
Working shifts at different times of the day and night increases your risk of becoming obese.
Medical Conditions and Medications
Certain medications and hormonal imbalances, such as hypothyroid and Cushing’s disease, increase your risk of obesity.
If you are a smoker and want to
, you may worry that quitting will increase your weight. Keep in mind that you can overcome this weight gain by reducing how many calories you consume and by exercising more. Overall, the health benefits of quitting smoking far exceed the risk of gaining weight.
If you are pregnant, smoking may increase your child's risk of becoming obese.
The incidence of obesity more than doubles between the ages of 20 and 55. However, this may be related to a decrease in activity levels.
A recent study found that within 30 years, over half of a large group of normal-weight men and women became overweight.
Rare hereditary diseases may increase the risk of obesity.
In addition, obesity may run in families. For example, if parents are overweight, their child may be at a higher risk of being overweight, as well. Both genetic and lifestyle factors could play a role in the child's excess weight.
There is a higher incidence of obesity among certain races or ethnic groups. In the US, obesity more African American women and Hispanic women than white women. In US men, Hispanic men are most often affected. For children, being African American, Hispanic, or Native American increases their risk of obesity.
Harsh physical punishment or abuse during childhood may increase the risk of obesity in adults. There is a higher incidence of obesity in adults who were raised in such environments.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Women with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of developing obesity.
Manenschijn L, van Kruysbergen RG, et al. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(110):1862-1865.
Obesity. Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals website. Available at:
http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional%5Fdisorders/obesity%5Fand%5Fthe%5Fmetabolic%5Fsyndrome/obesity.html?qt=obesity in adults&alt=sh. Update November 2012. Accessed March 20, 2013.
Obesity in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 7, 2013. . Accessed March 20, 2013.
Obesity in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated JMarch 20, 2013. Accessed March 20, 2013.
Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. Estimated risks for developing obesity in the Framingham Heart Study.
Ann Intern Med.
What causes overweight and obesity?
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/causes.html. Updated July 13, 2013. Accessed March 20, 2013..
12/2/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Maruyama K, Ohira T, Maeda K, et al. The joint impact on being overweight of self reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full: cross sectional survey.
9/25/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mizutani T, Suzuki K, Kondo N, Yamagata Z. Association of maternal lifestyles including smoking during pregnancy with childhood obesity.
Obesity (Silver Spring).
11/10/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Laurson KR, Eisenmann JC, Welk GJ, Wickel EE, Gentile DA, Walsh DA. Combined influence of physical activity and screen time recommendations on childhood overweight.
6/25/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Anderson SE, Whitaker RC. Household routines and obesity in US preschool-aged children.
9/24/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Semmler C, Ashcroft J, van Jaarsveld CH, Carnell S, Wardle J. Development of overweight in children in relation to parental weight and socioeconomic status.
Obesity (Silver Spring).
11/30/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Madsen KA, Weedn AE, Crawford PB.
Disparities in peaks, plateaus, and declines in prevalence of high BMI among adolescents.
2010;126(3):434-442. Epub 2010 Aug 16.
3/6/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Morenga TM, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies.
8/20/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamedAfifi TO, Mota N, Macmillan HL, et al. Harsh physical punishment in childhood and adult physical health. Pediatrics. 2013 Aug;132(2).
11/25/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance.
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Kubzansky L, Bordelois P, et al. The weight of traumatic stress: A prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and weight status in women. JAMA Psychiatry; 2013 Nov 20.