Diagnosis of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include:
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine—If the kidneys are not filtering the blood properly, the blood will contain excess amounts of creatinine and urea. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscle function, while urea is a waste product of protein metabolism.
Other tests to check blood component levels—These may include a complete blood count and a check on calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, blood electrolytes, and potassium levels.
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
—A measurement of how well the kidneys are processing wastes. Your doctor can calculate the GFR based on gender, age, body size, and blood creatinine level.
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
||over 90 mL/min (normal)
||60-89 mL/min (mild decrease)
||30-59 mL/min (moderate decrease)
||15-29 mL/min (severe decrease)
||under 15 mL/min (kidney failure or end-stage renal disease)
Urine tests—You may be asked to collect urine in a special container over a 24-hour period. This test will also show
your kidneys are clearing creatinine. The amount of urine you produce is also significant. If your kidneys are failing—or starting to fail—you may produce little or no urine.
—The use of
to take pictures of the kidneys. These pictures will show whether urine flow is blocked or whether there is a change in the size of the kidneys.
Some may use contrast dyes to highlight the structures.
—Tissue from the kidney is removed and examined under a microscope for abnormalities.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR). National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/gfr. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Johnson CA, Levey AS,Coresh J, Levin A, Lau J, Eknoyan G. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in adults: Part II. Glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria and other markers.
Am Fam Phys.
What I need to know about kidney failure and how it's treated. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
Updated September 15, 2010. Accessed July 2, 2013.
What is kidney failure? National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneyFailure. Accessed July 2, 2013.